DOI: 10.21276/ajptr
Fri, 19 Apr 2019

Comparative Characterization of the Phytomedicinal Constituents of Cnidoscolus aconitifolius Leaf Extracts.


Iwuji Samuel Chidi1*, Nwafor Arthur2, Egwurugwu Jude3, Ejeta Kenneth1 , Akpan Utibe1

1.Department of Biomedical Technology, School of Health Technology, Federal University of Technology Owerri. PMB 1526 Owerri, Nigeria.

2. Department of Human Physiology, Faculty of Basic Medical Science, University of Port Harcourt, Rivers State, Nigeria.

3. Department of Human Physiology, Faculty of Basic Medical Science, Imo State University Owerri, Imo State, Nigeria.



The increasing search and utilization of phytochemicals for medicinal purposes necessitated this comparative isolation and characterization of the medicinal constituents in aqueous, hydro-methanolic (1:4, v/v), hydro-ethanolic (1:4, v/v) leaf extracts of Cnidoscolus aconitifolius. The extracts were tested for twelve important medicinal constituents. Alkaloids, tannins, saponins, flavonoids, Salkowski’s test were positive though at different strengths in the three extracts. The presence of combined anthraquinons, saponins, free anthraquinones, terpenes and Liberman’s test appeared weak (33.3%) in aqueous and hydro-ethanolic (1:4, v/v) extracts though totally absent in hydro-methanolic (1:4, v/v) extract. Phlobatanins and cyanogenetic glycosides were absent in the three extracts. Hydromethanolic (1:4, v/v) extract contained at least 66.7% alkaloids, tannins, flavonoids, Salkowski’s test and Kellerkillian’s test and these gave cumulative percent – strength of 300.1% compared to aqueous extract that had 233.3% and hydroethanolic  (1:4, v/v) extract that had 200%. The results implied that hydromethanolic (1:4, v/v) extraction yields more medicinal constituents than aqueous and hydroethanolic (1:4, v/v) extractions. Further analysis of these isolated phytomedicinal constituents are recommended to understand the physiological and therapeutic implications of Cnidoscolus aconitifolius utilizations.

Keywords: Cnidoscolus aconitifolius, aqueous, hydro-methanolic, hydro-ethanolic, phytomedicinal constituents

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